ADHD in the Early Years: Pre-Natal and Early Causes and Alternative Ways of Dealing

Anna-Maria Driga, Athanasios Drigas


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurological disorder with a lack of an official scientific understanding of its genetic nature and the potential causes. However, there are practical research data that points to certain directions. In this paper, we examine the possible external causes of the disorder and specifically ones whose influence is related to pregnancy and (early) childhood years. Children born prematurely and/or with low birth weight are at high risk of developing ADHD. Maternal smoking, alcohol consumption and psychological disorders during pregnancy were proven to play a part as well. Some special social and economic situations raised the risk of appearance in the minors experiencing them. Electronics are a factor of distraction to children and were found to exacerbate symptoms. Most importantly, parenting choices can be determinant for a child with the disorder. A solution often proposed for symptoms of this nature is medication. Nonetheless, there were many defects and risks found within the psychostimulants used for the disorder. Alternative treatments are proposed before reaching for medication, two very effective ones being brain training and meditation.


ADHD, ADHD Causes, External ADHD Causes, Alternative ADHD Treat-ments

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International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering (iJOE) – eISSN: 2626-8493
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