8 Pillars X 8 Layers Model of Metacognition: Educational Strategies, Exercises &Trainings

Athanasios Drigas, Eleni Mitsea


Metacognition is one of the foremost cardinal factors of achievement in the 21st century. Despite extensive research, there is still the need to build a unique model based on multidisciplinary research illuminating questions as regards the real nature of metacognition and the methods to develop metacognitive abilities. The current study presents a new layered model of metacognition based on well-established theories derived from cognitive science, psychology, physical and computer sciences, environmental and other sciences, even from philosophy. We describe in detail the cognitive and metacognitive processes involved in each layer, while particular emphasis is placed on the relation between the control processes as well as the special role of attention. According to our model, each layer of metacognition describes a higher-order control system which operates under the rule of a series of attention processes at an ever more refined, abstract, united and holistic level. The same applies to the cognitive processes and abilities such as attention, memory, perception, pattern recognition. At each higher level, they display more advanced attributes and functions responding to the necessity of creating more abstract mental representations and upper class motivations, thoughts and emotions.  In addition, we recommend a number of strategies that support the metacognitive development at each level of the hierarchy. The multi-layered model of metacognition targets at enriching our understanding of how metacognition evolves and it has the potential to guide the development of more effective strategies in educational system.


layers of metacognition, intelligence, consciousness, executive functions, meta-attention, meta-memory, meta-motivations, information processing, control systems, educational strategies

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International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering (iJOE) – eISSN: 2626-8493
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