Deep Learning in Retinal Image Segmentation and Feature Extraction: A Review


  • Mohammed Enamul Hoque University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), Kuching, Malaysia,
  • Kuryati Kipli University Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), Kuching, Malaysia,



Retinal Imaging, Segmentation, Feature Extraction (FE), Deep Learning (DL), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Retinopathy


Image recognition and understanding is considered as a remarkable subfield of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In practice, retinal image data have high dimensionality leading to enormous size data. As the morphological retinal image datasets can be analyzed in an expansive and non-invasive way, AI more precisely Deep Learning (DL) methods are facilitating in developing intelligent retinal image analysis tools. The most recently developed DL technique, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) showed remarkable efficiency in identifying, localizing, and quantifying the complex and hierarchical image features that are responsible for severe cardiovascular diseases. Different deep layered CNN architectures such as LeeNet, AlexNet, and ResNet have been developed exploiting CNN morphology. This wide variety of CNN structures can iteratively learn complex data structures of different datasets through supervised or unsupervised learning and perform exquisite analysis for feature recognition independently to diagnose threatening cardiovascular diseases. In modern ophthalmic practice, DL based automated methods are being used in retinopathy screening, grading, identifying, and quantifying the pathological features to employ further therapeutic approaches and offering a wide potentiality to get rid of ophthalmic system complexity. In this review, the recent advances of DL technologies in retinal image segmentation and feature extraction are extensively discussed. To accomplish this study the pertinent materials were extracted from different publicly available databases and online sources deploying the relevant keywords that includes retinal imaging, artificial intelligence, deep learning and retinal database. For the associated publications the reference lists of selected articles were further investigated.




How to Cite

Hoque, M. E., & Kipli, K. (2021). Deep Learning in Retinal Image Segmentation and Feature Extraction: A Review. International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering (iJOE), 17(14), pp. 103–118.