Watermarking in Medical Image


  • Nashwan Alsalam Ali University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Iman I. Hamid University of Baghdad




watermarking, medical image, DICOM, Arnold Cat Map


Medical image security is possible using digital watermarking techniques. Important information is included in a host medical image in order to provide integrity, consistency, and authentication in the healthcare information system. This paper introduces a proposed method for embedding invisible watermarking in the 3D medical image. The cover medical image used is DICOM which consists of a number of slices, each one representing a sense, firstly must separate the ROI (Region of Interest) and NROI (Not Region Of Interest) for each slice, the separation process performed by the particular person who selected by hand the ROI. The embedding process is based on a key generated from Arnold's chaotic map used as the position of a pixel in the slices with the highest saturation for embedding a secret message in the NROI because the ROI contains the information of the ill, so it cannot be modified. The evaluation of the proposed method using PSNR and MSE shows good results according to both requirements of the watermark system, the invisibility and quality of the watermarked medical image where the PSNR value is up to 43.3936 and MSE is up to 0.000041.




How to Cite

Nashwan Alsalam Ali, & Iman I. Hamid. (2023). Watermarking in Medical Image. International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering (iJOE), 19(06), pp. 114–126. https://doi.org/10.3991/ijoe.v19i06.37591