Development of Smartphone Application Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Enhance Self-Efficacy for Online Learning
Keywords:Self-efficacy, online learning, theory of planned behaviour, smart-phone application
This study was conducted to develop a smartphone application to enhance self-efficacy for online learning. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used as a framework for developing the smartphone app. The study used research and design (R&D) through three phases: 1) examining relevant literature and interviewing recognized experts in the field, 2) developing the smartphone app, and 3) studying the effect of the smartphone app on the self-efficacy of online learners. The results demonstrated that the framework of the smartphone application based on the TPB comprised six components. They were 1) the TPB’s concept for online learning, 2) instructional process, 3) instructional support tools, 4) application features, 5) instructor’s role, and 6) learner’s role. For technical aspects, the smartphone app was developed and deployed by using Amazon Web Service (AWS) cloud computing platform and infrastructure. Studying the effect of the application on self-efficacy was performed for four weeks using two groups in a pre-test/post-test design. The research method involved purposive sampling of 180 undergraduate students, consisting of a 90-student experimental group and a 90-student control group. The application based on the TPB and the application without the TPB were implemented in the experimental group and the control group, respectively. The results demonstrated that the post-test score of self-efficacy in online learning for the experimental group was statistically significantly higher than the control group at 0.05 level. This result showed that the smartphone app based on the TPB could significantly affect self-efficacy for online learners; it has the potential to be an effective tool for teaching an online course.
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