Integrating Electrical Analogy and Computer Modeling of Groundwater Flow for Teaching Flownet Concepts

Murthy Kasi, Yaping Chi, G. Padmanabhan


Laplace equation is the basic differential equation that governs the steady flow of a fluid through an isotropic and homogeneous porous medium and also the steady flow of current in a conducting medium. Therefore, a steady-state groundwater flow problem can be formulated as an analogous electrical current flow problem. A flow net, set of grids formed by orthogonally intersecting equipotential lines and flow lines, is a graphical solution to the equations of steady groundwater flow. By definition, flownet for the original groundwater problem and the corresponding analogous electrical problem should be similar. This feature allows the possibility of introducing the concepts of flownets to students using the easily demonstrable electrical counterpart of the problem in a laboratory setting. This paper discusses the efforts of the authors to widen the scope of an experiment already included in the Fluid Mechanics laboratory course of a Civil Engineering curriculum and to better teach flownet principles using the electrical analogy of groundwater flow problems. Students used a simple experimental setup to obtain flownets for selected groundwater flow situations with different boundary conditions using the electrical analogy concept. Students also used a groundwater flow computer model to obtain flownets for the same flow situations and compared the results. The laboratory lesson plan consisted of five steps: (i) study and understand the selected physical groundwater problems, (ii) conceptualize the corresponding analogous electrical problems (iii) use the electrical analogy experimental setup to obtain flownets, (iv) study and understand the mathematical formulation of the problems, and (v) compare the analogous results with those obtained from a groundwater flow computer model. Sample results obtained by students are presented. The student feedback indicated that this approach resulted in an effective learning of the concepts involved.


Electrical analogy, flownet, groundwater, laboratory module, Visual MODFLOW.

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International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP) – eISSN: 2192-4880
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